Philip Kotler defines the marketing environment as a “set of external actors and forces which affect the company’s capabilities, development and maintenance of successful transactions with buyers”. The marketing environment can be divided into two categories: macro-environment and micro- environment.

Macro- environment represents the factors on which the institution has no direct influence, such as: government policy, economics (rate of economic growth, income level, economic policy of the state), socio-culture, technology development, demographic and natural factors (size and density of population, age and gender structure, structure of education), legal factors, local policy, natural factors (climate, natural resources).


The micro – environment, that is, the immediate environment of the subject of therapeutic activity that affects the organization, consists of such elements as, among others suppliers (e.g. power supplier, medical equipment, laboratory, other service providers), intermediaries, competitors, patients, institutions.

It is important for the institution to be aware of its environment and of how it affects the functioning of the organization and its position on the market.


  1. Nowotarska-Romaniak B., 2002. Marketing usług zdrowotnych. Kraków: Kantor Wydawniczy Zakamycze
  2. Drobnik J., Kollbek P., Witczak I., Nowicki P., Jadach R., 2008. Funkcja analityczna marketingu. W: Drobnik J. (red.), Nowicki P. (red.), 2008. Wybrane zagadnienia zdrowia publicznego. T.3: Marketing i negocjacje na rynku usług medycznych. Wrocław: Wydawnictwo Continuo
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